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Effect of Aqueous Extract of F. capensis Leaves and Its Combination with C. aconitifolius Leaves on Essential Biochemical Parameters of Phenylhydrazine-Induced Anemic Rats

Authors Ezeigwe OC, Nzekwe FA, Nworji OF, Ezennaya CF, Iloanya EL, Asogwa KK

Received 23 March 2020

Accepted for publication 7 June 2020

Published 1 July 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 191—201


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Bal Lokeshwar

Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe,1 Favour Amarachi Nzekwe,1 Ogechukwu Frances Nworji,1 Chidinma Felicia Ezennaya,2 Ebele Lauretta Iloanya,1 Kingsley Kelechi Asogwa1

1Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Correspondence: Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe Tel +2348034623581
Fax +2347034432437

Background: Ficus capensis Moraceae and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Euphorbiaceae leaves have been used separately in traditional medical practice to treat different ailments, of which anemia is one. This study aims to evaluate the effect of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius on hepatic, renal parameters and oxidative stress of phenylhydrazine-induced anemic rats.
Methods: Thirty-five rats were randomized into seven groups (A–G) of five rats each. Groups A and B served as the normal control and anemic control, respectively, while Groups C, D, E, F, and G were treated with a standard drug (vitamin B12), 200mg/kg bw. aqueous extract of F. capensis, 400mg/kg b.w. aqueous extract of F. capensis, 200mg/kg bw. of a combination of aqueous extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius and 400mg/kg bw. of a combination of aqueous extract of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius, respectively. The biochemical analysis (liver and kidney function analysis, oxidative stress) was carried out using standard diagnostic techniques.
Results: The results showed that there was significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the values obtained for Aspartate Transaminase (AST), alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, potassium ion, Total Cholesterol (TCHOL), Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL-C), Triglycerides (TRIG), Very Low-density Lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant increase (p< 0.05) in obtained values for High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) in all the extract-treated groups compared with the anemic-untreated. The values obtained for most of these biochemical parameters in the extract-treated groups were in the range of the normal control showing that the extract did not, in any way, alter the biochemical parameters. There was a significant increase (p< 0.05) in the glutathione peroxidase (Glut. Perox.) enzyme activity of the groups treated with the aqueous extract of F. capensis and its combination with C. aconitifolius compared with the anemic-untreated.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of F. capensis and C. aconitifolius leaves may promote liver function parameters, maintain normal serum electrolyte level and kidney function indices, stimulate reduction of “bad cholesterols” and increase “good cholesterol” and reduce oxidative stress.

Keywords: anemia, phenylhydrazine, Ficus capensis, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine

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