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Echocardiographic and Clinical Correlates of Ejection Fraction Among 2000 Patients with Heart Failure in Western Saudi Arabia

Authors Subki AH, Almalki MA, Butt NS, Alsallum MS, Almutairi HM, Khatib HA, Alzahrani AM, Babaker AS, Addas FA, Mashat AA, Jad AY, Zafar ZA, Nogali BW, Alghamdi AA, Alghamdi NA, Dakhakhni MF, Asaad OT, Alghalayini KW

Received 29 February 2020

Accepted for publication 25 May 2020

Published 9 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 281—288

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S251924

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Ahmed Hussein Subki,1 Mohammed Ali Almalki,2 Nadeem Shafique Butt,3 Mohammed Saad Alsallum,4 Hatim Mashan Almutairi,5 Hazim Abdulkarim Khatib,6 Abdulrahman Mousa Alzahrani,6 Abdullah Salem Babaker,6 Firas Abdulrahman Addas,6 Abdullah Abdulfattah Mashat,7 Ammar Yasser Jad,6 Zohair Abdulwahab Zafar,6 Baraa Waleed Nogali,6 Abdulaziz Abdulsalam Alghamdi,6 Nasser Adel Alghamdi,6 Mohanad Fahad Dakhakhni,6 Omar Tamer Asaad,6 Kamal Waheeb Alghalayini6

1Department of Internal Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Internal Medicine, King Faisal Medical Complex, Taif, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Biostatistics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Neurology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Radiology, Prince Mohammed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 7Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Kamal Waheeb Alghalayini
Department of Internal Medicine,College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Tel +966-12-6408222 ext 18244-18272
Email kalghalayini@kau.edu.sa

Introduction: Heart failure (HF) affects about 320,000 Saudi individuals and is associated with a considerable negative impact on the patients’ quality of life. In literature, there is a lack of data about the echocardiographic abnormalities of HF patients in Saudi Arabia.
Aim of Work: To describe the echocardiographic findings of HF patients in Western Saudi Arabia.
Methodology: This was a retrospective record review study conducted on 2000 patients with chronic HF in Saudi Arabia. Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic data were collected and compared among patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), ie, EF≤ 40%; HF with mid-range EF (HFmrEF), ie, EF=41– 49%; and HF with preserved EF (HFpEF), ie, EF≥ 50%.
Results: Among the 2000 patients studied, females constituted 46.3% of the sample. About 52% of females had HFpEF, whilst 70% of males had HFrEF (p< 0.0001). Diastolic dysfunction occurred in 98% of HFpEF versus 78% of HFrEF (p< 0.0001). Patients with HFrEF had higher left-ventricular diastolic (LVd) volume (1536 versus 826), higher left-ventricular systolic (LVs) volume (1660 vs 772), higher left atrial volume (1344 vs 875), higher aortic root dimension (1144 vs 929) and lower fractional shortening (FS) (267 vs 1213) than patients with HFpEF (p< 0.0001).
Conclusion: HFpEF was more common among females and was associated with higher rates of diastolic dysfunction and higher FS. HFrEF was prevalent among males and associated with higher LVd, LVs, left atrium volume and aortic root dimensions.

Keywords: echocardiography, heart failure, Saudi Arabia, ejection fraction, HFpEF, HFmrEF, HFrEF


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