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Early rehospitalizations of frail elderly patients – the role of medications: a clinical, prospective, observational trial

Authors Ekerstad N, Bylin K, Karlson BW

Received 9 April 2017

Accepted for publication 27 July 2017

Published 18 August 2017 Volume 2017:9 Pages 77—88


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Hemalkumar Mehta

Niklas Ekerstad,1,2 Kristoffer Bylin,3 Björn W Karlson3,4

1Department of Cardiology, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla) Hospital Group, Trollhättan, 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Acute and Internal Medicine, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla) Hospital Group, Trollhättan, 4Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Background and objective:
Early readmissions of frail elderly patients after an episode of hospital care are common and constitute a crucial patient safety outcome. Our purpose was to study the impact of medications on such early rehospitalizations.
Patients and methods: This is a clinical, prospective, observational study on rehospitalizations within 30 days after an acute hospital episode for frail patients over the age of 75 years. To identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs), underuse of evidence-based treatment and avoidability of rehospitalizations, the Naranjo score, the Hallas criteria and clinical judgment were used.
Results: Of 390 evaluable patients, 96 (24.6%) were rehospitalized. The most frequent symptoms and conditions were dyspnea (n = 25) and worsened general condition (n = 18). The most frequent diagnoses were heart failure (n = 17) and pneumonia/acute bronchitis (n = 13). By logistic regression analysis, independent risk predictors for rehospitalization were heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1–3.1) and anemia (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–4.0). The number of rehospitalizations due to probable ADRs was 13, of which two were assessed as avoidable. The number of rehospitalizations probably due to underuse of evidence-based drug treatment was 19, all of which were assessed as avoidable. The number of rehospitalizations not due to ADRs or underuse of evidence-based drug treatment was 64, of which none was assessed as avoidable.
Conclusion: One out of four frail elderly patients discharged from hospital was rehospitalized within 1 month. Although ADRs constituted an important cause of rehospitalization, underuse of evidence-based drug treatment might be an even more frequent cause. Potentially avoidable rehospitalizations were more frequently associated with underuse of evidence-based drug treatment than with ADRs. Efforts to avoid ADRs in frail elderly patients must be balanced and combined with evidence-based drug therapy, which can benefit these patients.

Keywords: frail elderly, early rehospitalizations, causes, drugs, patient safety

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