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Dyslipidemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: etiology and management

Authors Mikolasevic I, Žutelija M, Mavrinac V, Orlic L

Received 11 August 2016

Accepted for publication 16 November 2016

Published 7 February 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 35—45

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S101808

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal


Ivana Mikolasevic,1,2 Marta Žutelija,3 Vojko Mavrinac,1 Lidija Orlic 2

1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation, UHC Rijeka, 3School of Medicine, Rijeka, Croatia

Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including those with end-stage renal disease, treated with dialysis, or renal transplant recipients have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Dyslipidemia, often present in this patient population, is an important risk factor for CVD development. Specific quantitative and qualitative changes are seen at different stages of renal impairment and are associated with the degree of glomerular filtration rate declining. Patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD have low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), normal or low total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, increased triglycerides as well as increased apolipoprotein B (apoB), lipoprotein(a) (Lp (a)), intermediate- and very-low-density lipoprotein (IDL, VLDL; “remnant particles”), and small dense LDL particles. In patients with nephrotic syndrome lipid profile is more atherogenic with increased TC, LDL, and triglycerides. Lipid profile in hemodialysis (HD) patients is usually similar to that in non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients. Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) have more altered dyslipidemia compared to HD patients, which is more atherogenic in nature. These differences may be attributed to PD per se but may also be associated with the selection of dialytic modality. In renal transplant recipients, TC, LDL, VLDL, and triglycerides are elevated, whereas HDL is significantly reduced. Many factors can influence post-transplant dyslipidemia including immunosuppressive agents. This patient population is obviously at high risk; hence, prompt diagnosis and management are required to improve their clinical outcomes. Various studies have shown statins to be effective in the cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD as well as in renal transplant recipients. However, according to recent clinical randomized controlled trials (4D, A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Dialysis: an Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events, and Study of Heart and Renal protection), these beneficial effects are uncertain in dialyzed patients. Therefore, further research for the most suitable treatment options is needed.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia

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