Dynamin 3: a new candidate tumor suppressor gene in hepatocellular carcinoma detected by triple combination array analysis
Authors Inokawa Y, Nomoto S, Hishida M, Hayashi M, Kanda M, Nishikawa Y, Takeda S, Fujiwara M, Koike M, Sugimoto H, Fujii T, Nakayama G, Yamada S, Tanaka C, Kobayashi D, Kodera Y
Received 22 July 2013
Accepted for publication 14 August 2013
Published 9 October 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 1417—1424
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Yoshikuni Inokawa,1 Shuji Nomoto,1 Mitsuhiro Hishida,1 Masamichi Hayashi,1 Mitsuro Kanda,1 Yoko Nishikawa,1 Shin Takeda,2 Michitaka Fujiwara,1 Masahiko Koike,1 Hiroyuki Sugimoto,1 Tsutomu Fujii,1 Goro Nakayama,1 Suguru Yamada,1 Chie Tanaka,1 Daisuke Kobayashi,1 Yasuhiro Kodera1
1Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan
Background: To identify genes associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis, we developed a triple combination array strategy comprising methylation, gene expression, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis.
Methods: Surgical specimens obtained from a 68-year-old female HCC patient were analyzed by triple combination array, and identified Dynamin 3 (DNM3) as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in HCC. Subsequently, samples from 48 HCC patients were evaluated for DNM3 methylation and expression status using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR; MSP) and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, respectively. The relationship between clinicopathological factors and DNM3 methylation status was also investigated.
Results: DNM3 was shown to be hypermethylated (methylation value 0.879, range 0–1.0) in cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue (0.213) by methylation array in the 68-year-old female patient. Expression arrays revealed decreased expression of DNM3 in cancerous tissue. SNP arrays revealed that the copy number of chromosome 1q24.3, in which DNM3 resides, was normal. MSP revealed hypermethylation of the DNM3 promoter region in 33 of 48 tumor samples. A trend toward decreased DNM3 expression was observed in patients with DNM3 promoter methylation (P = 0.189). Furthermore, patients with reduced expression of DNM3 in tumor tissues exhibited worse prognosis with decreased disease specific survival compared to patients without decreased expression (P = 0.014).
Conclusion: The present study indicates that a triple combination array strategy is an effective method to detect novel genes related to HCC. We propose that DNM3 is a tumor suppressor gene in HCC.
Keywords: DNM3, hepatocellular carcinoma, methylation, triple combination array