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Double-receptor-targeting multifunctional iron oxide nanoparticles drug delivery system for the treatment and imaging of prostate cancer

Authors Ahmed MSU, Salam AB, Yates C, Willian K, Jaynes J, Turner T, Abdalla MO

Received 6 April 2017

Accepted for publication 21 June 2017

Published 19 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 6973—6984


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Md Shakir Uddin Ahmed,1 Ahmad Bin Salam,1 Clayton Yates,1 Kyle Willian,2 Jesse Jaynes,3 Timothy Turner,4 Mohamed O Abdalla5

1Department of Biology, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, 3Department of Environmental Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, 4Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, 5Department of Chemistry, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, USA

Abstract: As an alternative therapeutic treatment to reduce or eliminate the current side effects associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) chemotherapy, a multifunctional double-receptor-targeting iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor [LHRH-R] peptide- and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor [uPAR] peptide-targeted iron oxide nanoparticles, LHRH-AE105-IONPs) drug delivery system was developed. Two tumor-targeting peptides guided this double-receptor-targeting nanoscale drug delivery system. These peptides targeted the LHRH-R and the uPAR on PCa cells. Dynamic light scattering showed an increase in the hydrodynamic size of the LHRH-AE105-IONPs in comparison to the non-targeted iron oxide nanoparticles (NT-IONPs). Surface analysis showed that there was a decrease in the zeta potential values for drug-loaded LHRH-AE105-IONPs compared to the NT-IONPs. Prussian blue staining demonstrated that the LHRH-AE105-IONPs were internalized efficiently by the human PCa cell line, PC-3. In vitro, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results confirmed the preferential binding and accumulation of LHRH-AE105-IONPs in PC-3 cells compared to normal prostate epithelial cells (RC77N/E). The results also showed that LHRH-AE105-IONPs significantly maintained T2 MRI contrast effects and reduced T2 values upon internalization by PC-3 cells. These paclitaxel-loaded double-receptor-targeting IONPs also showed an approximately twofold reduction in PC-3 cell viability compared to NT-IONPs.

Keywords: LHRH-R, uPAR, prostate cancer, iron oxide nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery

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