Disease progression model for Clinical Dementia Rating–Sum of Boxes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Mahesh N Samtani, Nandini Raghavan, Gerald Novak, Partha Nandy, Vaibhav A Narayan
On behalf of the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Raritan, New Jersey, USA
Background: The objective of this analysis was to develop a nonlinear disease progression model, using an expanded set of covariates that captures the longitudinal Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (CDR–SB) scores. These were derived from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative ADNI-1 study, of 301 Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment patients who were followed for 2–3 years.
Methods: The model describes progression rate and baseline disease score as a function of covariates. The covariates that were tested fell into five groups: a) hippocampal volume; b) serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers; c) demographics and apolipoprotein Epsilon 4 (ApoE4) allele status; d) baseline cognitive tests; and e) disease state and comedications.
Results: Covariates associated with baseline disease severity were disease state, hippocampal volume, and comedication use. Disease progression rate was influenced by baseline CSF biomarkers, Trail-Making Test part A score, delayed logical memory test score, and current level of impairment as measured by CDR–SB. The rate of disease progression was dependent on disease severity, with intermediate scores around the inflection point score of 10 exhibiting high disease progression rate. The CDR–SB disease progression rate in a typical patient, with late mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease, was estimated to be approximately 0.5 and 1.4 points/year, respectively.
Conclusions: In conclusion, this model describes disease progression in terms of CDR–SB changes in patients and its dependency on novel covariates. The CSF biomarkers included in the model discriminate mild cognitive impairment subjects as progressors and nonprogressors. Therefore, the model may be utilized for optimizing study designs, through patient population enrichment and clinical trial simulations.
Keywords: NONMEM®, beta-regression, CSF Aß1–42, hippocampal volume, trial enrichment
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