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Differential stress reaction of human colon cells to oleic-acid-stabilized and unstabilized ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles

Authors Schütz C, Staedler D, Crosbie-Staunton K, Movia D, Bernasconi C, Halamoda Kenzaoui B, Prina-Mello A, Juillerat-Jeanneret L

Received 28 March 2014

Accepted for publication 3 May 2014

Published 23 July 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 3481—3498

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S65082

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Catherine A Schütz,1,* Davide Staedler,2,* Kieran Crosbie-Staunton,3 Dania Movia,4 Catherine Chapuis Bernasconi,1 Blanka Halamoda Kenzaoui,1 Adriele Prina-Mello,3,4 Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret1

1Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), UNIL, 2Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, EPFL, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3School of Medicine, 4CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Therapeutic engineered nanoparticles (NPs), including ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) NPs, may accumulate in the lower digestive tract following ingestion or injection. In order to evaluate the reaction of human colon cells to USPIO NPs, the effects of non-stabilized USPIO NPs (NS-USPIO NPs), oleic-acid-stabilized USPIO NPs (OA-USPIO NPs), and free oleic acid (OA) were compared in human HT29 and CaCo2 colon epithelial cancer cells. First the biophysical characteristics of NS-USPIO NPs and OA-USPIO NPs in water, in cell culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, and in cell culture medium preconditioned by HT29 and CaCo2 cells were determined. Then, stress responses of the cells were evaluated following exposure to NS-USPIO NPs, OA-USPIO NPs, and free OA. No modification of the cytoskeletal actin network was observed. Cell response to stress, including markers of apoptosis and DNA repair, oxidative stress and degradative/autophagic stress, induction of heat shock protein, or lipid metabolism was determined in cells exposed to the two NPs. Induction of an autophagic response was observed in the two cell lines for both NPs but not free OA, while the other stress responses were cell- and NP-specific. The formation of lipid vacuoles/droplets was demonstrated in HT29 and CaCo2 cells exposed to OA-USPIO NPs but not to NS-USPIO NPs, and to a much lower level in cells exposed to equimolar concentrations of free OA. Therefore, the induction of lipid vacuoles in colon cells exposed to OA utilized as a stabilizer for USPIO NPs is higly amplified compared to free OA, and is not observed in the absence of this lipid in NS-USPIO NPs.

Keywords: oleic acid, ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles, human colon cells, lipid vacuoles, stress reaction, heat shock proteins

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