Differential recognition of Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, and Candida auris by human innate immune cells
Received 8 December 2018
Accepted for publication 12 February 2019
Published 8 April 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 783—794
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
María J Navarro-Arias,1 Marco J Hernández-Chávez,1 Laura C García-Carnero,1 Diana G Amezcua-Hernández,1 Nancy E Lozoya-Pérez,1 Eine Estrada-Mata,1 Iván Martínez-Duncker,2 Bernardo Franco,1 Héctor M Mora-Montes1
1Department of Biology, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Campus Guanajuato, Universidad de Guanajuato, 36050, Guanajuato, Gto, México; 2Laboratory of Human Glycobiology and Molecular Diagnostics, Centro de Investigación en Dinámica Celular, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, 62209, Morelos, México
Background: The deep-seated infections caused by the Candida genus are associated with a high mortality rate, and Candida albicans is the most frequent species associated with these diseases. The fungal wall is composed of macromolecules not synthesized by the host, and therefore is a source of ligands recognized by innate immune cells.
Methods: We performed a comparative study analyzing the cell wall composition and organization of Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, and Candida auris, along with their ability to stimulate cytokine production and phagocytosis by human innate immune cells.
Results: We found that the wall of these species had the basic components already described in C. albicans, with most of the chitin and b1,3-glucan located underneath the mannan layer. However, the walls of C. krusei and C. auris were rich in chitin and the former had a lower content of mannans. C. guilliermondii contained changes in the mannan and the b1,3-glucan levels. These species were differentially phagocytosed by human macrophages and stimulated cytokine production in a dectin-1-dependent pathway. C. krusei showed the most significant changes in the tested parameters, whereas C. auris behaved like C. albicans.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the cell wall and innate immune recognition of C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, and Candida auris is different from that reported for C. albicans.
Keywords: cell wall, protein glycosylation, host–fungus interplay, phagocytosis, cytokine production
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