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Differential effects of interleukin-1β and S100B on amyloid precursor protein in rat retinal neurons

Authors Anderson P, Watts HR, Jen S, Gentleman SM, Moncaster JA, Walsh DT, Jen L

Published 25 February 2009 Volume 2009:3 Pages 235—242


Peter JB Anderson1, Helena R Watts1, Sheila Jen1, Stephen M Gentleman2, Juliet A Moncaster1, et al

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience and 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Imperial College London, Burlington Danes Building, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK

Purpose: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and S100B calcium binding protein B (S100B) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Both are present in and around senile plaques and have been shown to increase levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNA in vitro. However, it is not known how either of these substances affects APP in vivo.

Methods: We have studied the effects of IL-1β and S100B on the expression and processing of APP using a retinal-vitreal model. We have also investigated the effect of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) on APP in the same system and the regulation of S100B production by Aβ and IL-1β from retinal glial cells.

Results: Retinal ganglion cells constitutively express APP. However, after intravitreal injection of IL-1β or Aβ there was a marked reduction in APP levels as detected by Western blotting and IL-1β produced a decrease in APP immunoreactivity (IR). Nissl staining showed that the integrity of the injected retinas was unchanged after injection. Two days after S100B injection, there was a small reduction in APP-IR but this was accompanied by the appearance of some intensely stained large ganglion cells and there was some up-regulation in APP holoprotein  levels on Western blot. Seven days post-S100Β injection, these large, highly stained cells had increased in number throughout the retina. Injection of Aβ and IL-1β also caused an increase in S100B production within the retinal Müller glial cells.

Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that S100B (a glial-derived neurotrophic factor) and IL-1β (a pro-infl ammatory cytokine) can modulate the expression and processing of APP in vivo and so may contribute to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, interleukin 1β, S100B, amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β, retina

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