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Different aggregation and shape characteristics of carbon materials affect biological responses in RAW264 cells

Authors Kuroda C, Ueda K, Haniu H, Ishida H, Okano S, Takizawa T, Sobajima A, Kamanaka T, Yoshida K, Okamoto M, Tsukahara T, Matsuda Y, Aoki K, Kato H, Saito N

Received 27 April 2018

Accepted for publication 21 June 2018

Published 5 October 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 6079—6088


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Chika Kuroda,1,2,* Katsuya Ueda,1,3,* Hisao Haniu,1,3–5 Haruka Ishida,1,4 Satomi Okano,1,4 Takashi Takizawa,5 Atsushi Sobajima,5 Takayuki Kamanaka,5 Kazushige Yoshida,5 Masanori Okamoto,5 Tamotsu Tsukahara,6 Yoshikazu Matsuda,7 Kaoru Aoki,8 Hiroyuki Kato,5 Naoto Saito1,3–5

1Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Shinshu University, Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan; 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan; 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan; 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan; 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki, Japan; 7Clinical Pharmacology Educational Center, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Komuro, Ina-machi, Saitama, Japan; 8Physical Therapy Division, School of Health Sciences, Shinshu University, Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Introduction: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have various shapes, including needle-like shapes and curled shapes, and the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of CNTs differ depending on their shapes and surface modifications. However, the biological responses induced by CNTs and related mechanisms according to the dispersion state of CNTs have not been extensively studied.
Materials and methods: We prepared multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) showing different dispersions and evaluated these MWCNTs in RAW264 cells to determine cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and immune responses. Furthermore, RAW264 cells were also used to compare the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of fibrous MWCNTs and spherical carbon nanohorns (CNHs) exhibiting the same degree of dispersion.
Results: Our analysis showed that the cellular uptake, localization, and inflammatory responses of MWCNTs differed depending on the dispersion state. Moreover, there were differences in uptake between MWCNTs and CNHs, even showing the same degree of dispersion. These findings suggested that receptors related to cytotoxicity and immune responses differed depending on the aggregated state of MWCNTs and surface modification with a dispersant. Furthermore, our results suggested that the receptors recognized by the cells differed depending on the particle shape.
Conclusion: Therefore, to apply MWCNTs as a biomaterial, it is important to determine the carcinogenicity and toxicity of the CNTs and to examine different biological responses induced by varying shapes, dispersion states, and surface modifications of particles.

Keywords: multiwalled carbon nanotubes, aggregation, carbon nanohorns, cytotoxicity, immune response, cellular uptake

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