Differences in subjective and objective respiratory parameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with and without pain
Signe Berit Bentsen1,2, Tone Rustøen3,4, Christine Miaskowski5
1Stord/Haugesund University College, Department of Health Education, Haugesund, Norway; 2Haugesund Hospital, Department of Research, Haugesund, Norway; 3Department of Research and Development, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; 4Lovisenberg Diaconal University College, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
Background: Few studies have evaluated the associations between respiratory parameters and pain in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences in respiratory parameters between COPD patients who did and did not have pain.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study respiratory parameters were measured by spirometry and the St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire. Patients responded to a single question that asked if they were generally bothered by pain.
Results: Of the 100 patients, 45% reported that they were generally bothered by pain. Patients who had pain reported a higher number of comorbidities (P < 0.001) and higher breathlessness scores (P = 0.003). Physical dimensions of breathlessness were significantly associated with pain (P ≤ 0.03). The results of logistic regression analysis determined that a higher number of comorbidities (OR = 0.28; P = 0.026) and higher breathlessness scores (OR = 1.03; P = 0.003) made significant unique contributions to the prediction of pain group membership.
Conclusions: Comorbidity and breathlessness were risk factors for pain and the physical dimensions of breathlessness were associated with pain.
Keywords: COPD, pain, comorbidity, lung function, breathlessness
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