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Dietary diversity and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia

Authors Hailu S, Woldemichael B

Received 5 July 2018

Accepted for publication 11 December 2018

Published 5 April 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 1—8

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S179265

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Chandrika J Piyathilake


Sintayehu Hailu,1 Bedasa Woldemichael2

1Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, Goba Referral Hospital, Madda Walabu University, Bale-Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Goba Referral Hospital, Madda Walabu University, Bale-Goba, Ethiopia

Background: Dietary diversity is a proxy indicator of nutrient adequacy. However, little is documented on dietary diversity among pregnant women in Ethiopia in general and specifically in the study area. This study assessed dietary diversity and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public health facilities in Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia.
Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Bale Zone from January to March 2017. The sample size was determined using a single population proportion formula. Data were collected by pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaires from a total of 413 pregnant women who were identified through systematic random sampling. The sample was drawn proportionally from selected public health facilities based on the client load. Dietary diversity was computed from information about the nine food groups obtained using a 24-hour dietary recall method. Statistical analysis was done using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression with the P-value <0.05 at 95% confidence interval considered as statistically significant.
Results: The mean age of the pregnant women was 26.93 with standard deviation ±6.12 years. About 55.2% of the pregnant women had inadequate dietary diversity. Getting information from a health professional [AOR =5.26, 95% CI (1.60, 17.36)], being an urban dweller [AOR =8.95, 95% CI (4.42, 18.16)], having a protected water source [AOR =11.16, 95% CI (4.74, 26.27)], having a latrine [AOR =8.21, 95% CI (4.01, 16.80)], having a home garden [AOR =4.26, 95% CI (2.08, 8.70)], having a bank account [AOR =12.25, 95% CI (6.01, 24.97)] and having use of a mobile phone [AOR =3.82, 95% CI (1.92, 7.62)] were significantly associated with dietary diversity.
Conclusion: In this community, the prevalence of inadequate dietary diversity is high. Variables which indicate a better living condition such as having a protected source of water, having a latrine, having a home garden, being an urban dweller, having a bank account and having use of a mobile phone were independent predictors of dietary diversity. Therefore, attention should be paid to improve to better living conditions of pregnant women by addressing determinate variables through community awareness.

Keywords: dietary diversity, pregnant women, antenatal care, Ethiopia

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