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Dietary Behaviours Among Han, Tujia and Miao Primary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

Authors Cai Z, Xian J, Xu X, Zhang Z, Araujo C, Sharma M, Zhao Y

Received 11 February 2020

Accepted for publication 31 July 2020

Published 24 August 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1309—1318

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S249101

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Carotenuto


Zhengjie Cai,1– 3,* Jinli Xian,1– 3,* Xianglong Xu,4– 6 Ziwei Zhang,7 Camila Araujo,8 Manoj Sharma,9 Yong Zhao1– 3,10

1School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 3The Innovation Center for Social Risk Governance in Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 5Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6China-Australia Joint Research Center for Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health, Science Center, Xi’an, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 7The Second Clinical College, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 9Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada , Las Vegas, NV, USA; 10Chongqing Key Laboratory of Child Nutrition and Health, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Yong Zhao Email zhaoyong@cqmu.edu.cn

Background and Purpose: Exploring the differences of children’s dietary behaviours from different nationalities could provide a reference for targeted nutritional interventions. This study aims to assess the dietary behaviours among Han, Tujia and Miao primary school students and the differences among the ethnic groups.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 556 primary school students (249 Han, 76 Tujia and 231 Miao students) aged 6– 13 years from the representative minority areas of Chongqing, China. Data were collected with a self-administered or one-on-one interview-based questionnaire encompassing questions on sociodemographics, eating habits and dietary intake. Eating habits and dietary intake were categorized into health-protective and health-risk dietary behaviours. χ2 tests were conducted to examine the differences in eating habits and dietary intake among the three ethnic groups. Forward stepwise logistic regression models were performed to check the factors affecting dietary intake.
Results: Fewer than half of the students had health-protective dietary behaviours in terms of rice, fruit, fish, eggs and milk intake. Compared with Han students, Tujia students were more likely to meet the recommended intake of vegetables (OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.22– 3.69]), less likely to meet the recommended intake of meat (OR = 0.58, 95% CI [0.35– 0.94]) and fish (OR = 0.55, 95% CI [0.32– 0.94]); Miao students were more likely to meet the recommended intake of vegetables (OR = 1.73, 95% CI [1.20– 2.51]), fruits (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.16– 2.28]) and water (OR = 1.59, 95% CI [1.12– 2.26]) than those of Han students.
Conclusion: The low proportion of health-protective dietary behaviours among primary school students from Han, Tujia and Miao ethnicities was found in this study. There were differences in dietary behaviours among the three ethnic groups. This study could provide a reference for implementing national dietary guidelines in consideration of socioeconomic status, ways of preparing and consuming foods, traditional foods and customs of different ethnic groups.

Keywords: dietary behaviours, dietary guidelines, minority nationalities, primary school students

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