Back to Journals » International Journal of General Medicine » Volume 6

Diabetic retinopathy is associated with oxidative stress and mitigation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes

Authors El-Bab MF, Zaki NS, Mojaddidi MA, AL-Barry M, El-Beshbishy HA

Received 26 May 2013

Accepted for publication 1 July 2013

Published 19 September 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 799—806

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S40665

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Mohamed Fath El-Bab,1,4 Nashaat S Zaki,2,5 Moaz A Mojaddidi,1 Maan AL-Barry,2 Hesham A El-Beshbishy3,6

1Department of Physiology, Taibah University, Almadinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Almadinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Medical Laboratories Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 6Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease associated with serious complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). The authors' main aim was to investigate biochemical parameters and the oxidative stress associated with the type 2 DR patients and to study gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) among patients with DR [DR(+)] compared with a control nondiabetic group. In all, 67 patients with DR included in this study were diabetic for more than 10 years. Among them, 22 patients were DR(+), and 45 patients did not have DR [DR(-)]. The subjects' age range was 14 years to 80 years old with diabetes duration range between 2 and 45 years. Body mass index (BMI) was 31.43 ± 5.94 and 32.33 ± 6.54, systolic blood pressure was 117.15 ± 18.16 mmHg and 126.15 ± 20.26 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 81.11 ± 10.55 mmHg and 82.77 ± 10.85 mmHg, HbA1c was 7.2 ± 1.1 and 8.19 ± 1.95, serum total cholesterol was 6.61 ± 1.11 and 4.11 ± 0.31, serum triglycerides were 3.52 ± 0.89 and 3.42 ± 0.79, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was 2.12 ± 0.10 and 2.42 ± 0.15, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was 2.66 ± 0.30 and 2.55 ± 0.21, SOD was 3.12 ± 0.87 and 1.53 ± 0.14, GPx was 11.14 ± 2.21 and 8.2 ± 1.84, CAT was 26.43 ± 3.34 and 9.60 ± 2.14, for DR(-) and DR(+) patients, respectively. SOD, GPx and CAT polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the DR(+) patients revealed the diminished expression of CAT gene followed by GPx and SOD genes. All were significant compared with the normal controls, P < 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and the diastolic blood pressure, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HA1c)%, and fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001). A marginally significant positive correlation between the retinopathy grade and LDL-cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between the retinopathy grade and total cholesterol was observed (P < 0.05). Poor glycemic control and alteration in mRNA gene expression of antioxidant enzymes are strongly associated with development of DR and the regular screening is mandatory for early detection and treatment.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, antioxidant enzymes, gene expression

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other articles by this author:

Assessment of coronary heart diseases in diabetics in al-Madinah al-Munawarah

al-Nozha O, Mojadadi M, Mosaad M, El-Bab MF

International Journal of General Medicine 2012, 5:143-149

Published Date: 22 February 2012

Retinopathy and risk factors in diabetic patients from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

El-Bab MF, Shawky N, Al-Sisi A, Akhtar M

Clinical Ophthalmology 2012, 6:269-276

Published Date: 17 February 2012

Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010