Developments in renal pharmacogenomics and applications in chronic kidney disease
Ariadna Padullés,1 Inés Rama,2 Inés Llaudó,2 Núria Lloberas2
1Pharmacy Department, 2Nephrology Department, IDIBELL-Hospital Universitari Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has shown an increasing prevalence in the last century. CKD encompasses a poor prognosis related to a remarkable number of comorbidities, and many patients suffer from this disease progression. Once the factors linked with CKD evolution are distinguished, it will be possible to provide and enhance a more intensive treatment to high-risk patients. In this review, we focus on the emerging markers that might be predictive or related to CKD progression physiopathology as well as those related to a different pattern of response to treatment, such as inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers; the vitamin D receptor agonist; salt sensitivity hypertension; and progressive kidney-disease markers with identified genetic polymorphisms). Candidate-gene association studies and genome-wide association studies have analyzed the genetic basis for common renal diseases, including CKD and related factors such as diabetes and hypertension. This review will, in brief, consider genotype-based pharmacotherapy, risk prediction, drug target recognition, and personalized treatments, and will mainly focus on findings in CKD patients. An improved understanding will smooth the progress of switching from classical clinical medicine to gene-based medicine.
Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme, diabetes, hypertension, renal treatment, gene polymorphisms, biomarkers
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