Back to Journals » Patient Preference and Adherence » Volume 5

Developments in administration of growth hormone treatment: focus on Norditropin® Flexpro®

Authors Yuen K, Amin R

Published 10 March 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 117—124


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Kevin CJ Yuen1, Rakesh Amin2
1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA; 2Barts and The London Children’s Hospital, London, UK

Abstract: Recombinant human growth hormone is used for the treatment of growth failure in children and metabolic dysfunction in adults with growth hormone deficiency. However, conventional growth hormone therapy requires daily subcutaneous injections that may affect treatment adherence, and subsequently efficacy outcomes. To enhance potential treatment adherence, improved ease of use of growth hormone delivery devices and long-acting growth hormone formulations are now being developed. Flexpro®, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2010, is the most recent pen device developed by Novo Nordisk A/S to deliver Norditropin®. It is a multidose, premixed, preloaded, disposable pen device that requires relatively less force to inject and does not require refrigeration after initial use. Dose adjustments can be optimized by small dose increments of the pen delivery device at 0.025 mg, 0.05 mg and 0.1 mg. In addition, for patients with needle anxiety, NovoFine® needles, some of the shortest and thinnest available, and Autocover®, which hides the needle during injections, can be used with the Flexpro pen device. This article reviews the Norditropin Flexpro pen device in the context of other growth hormone delivery devices, sustained-release growth hormone formulations in development, and future prospects.

Keywords: growth hormone, administration, adherence, treatment, pen, device

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010