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Development of sulconazole-loaded nanoemulsions for enhancement of transdermal permeation and antifungal activity

Authors Yang Q, Liu S, Gu Y, Tang X, Wang T, Wu J, Liu J

Received 24 February 2019

Accepted for publication 3 May 2019

Published 28 May 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 3955—3966

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S206657

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Mian Wang


Qing Yang,1,2,* Shanshan Liu,3,* Yongwei Gu,1,2 Xiaomeng Tang,3 Ting Wang,1,2 Jianhua Wu,4 Jiyong Liu1–3

1Department of Pharmacy, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Dermatology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background:
Sulconazole (SCZ) is a broad-spectrum transdermally administered anti-fungicidal agent. However, the therapeutic effect of SCZ is generally limited by its poor water solubility. This present study aimed to develop and evaluate sulconazole-loaded nanoemulsions (SCZ-NEs) for enhancement of the transdermal permeation and antifungal activity.
Methods: A spontaneous titration method was applied to prepare the SCZ-NEs. And the optimized formulation of SCZ-NEs was screened by central composite design (CCD). In addition, the characteristics of the SCZ-NEs were evaluated, including particle size, zeta potential, drug loading (DL%) and encapsulation efficiency (EE%). The morphology of SCZ-NEs was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Franz diffusion cells were used to evaluate the transdermal permeability of the SCZ-NEs. The antifungal activity of the SCZ-NEs was measured by a zone of inhibition (ZOI) test.
Results: The optimized SCZ-NEs possessed a moderate particle size of 52.3±3.8 nm, zeta potential of 23.3±1.2 mV, DL% of 0.47±0.05% and EE% of 87.1±3.2%. The ex vivo skin permeation study verified that the cumulative permeability (Qn) and penetration rate (Js) of the optimized SCZ-NEs were about 1.7-fold higher than that of a commercial reference, miconazole (MCZ) cream and 3-fold higher than that of SCZ-DMSO solution. The optimized SCZ-NEs exhibited zone of inhibition (ZOI) values of 23.5±2.4 and 20.4±2.5 mm against C. albicans and T. rubrum, which were larger compared with these of the MCZ cream and SCZ-DMSO solution.
Conclusion: SCZ-NEs were effectively developed to overcome the poor solubility of SCZ, promote SCZ permeation through the skin and improve its antifungal activity. Thus, the SCZ-NEs are a promising percutaneous administration for skin fungal infections induced by C. albicans and T. rubrum.

Keywords: sulconazole, nanoemulsion, central composite design, transdermal delivery, antifungal activity

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