Development of decellularized meniscus using closed sonication treatment system: potential scaffolds for orthopedics tissue engineering applications
Authors Yusof F, Sha'ban M, Azhim A
Received 5 March 2019
Accepted for publication 4 June 2019
Published 19 July 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 5491—5502
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Fatihah Yusof,1 Munirah Sha’ban,2 Azran Azhim1
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Malaysia; 2Department of Physical Rehabilitation Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Malaysia
Purpose: Meniscus is a fibrocartilagenous tissue that cannot effectively heal due to its complex structure and presence of avascular zone. Thus, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine offer an alternative for the regeneration of meniscus tissues using bioscaffolds as a replacement for the damaged one. The aim of this study was to prepare an ideal meniscus bioscaffold with minimal adverse effect on extracellular matrix components (ECMs) using a sonication treatment system.
Methods: The decellularization was achieved using a developed closed sonication treatment system for 10 hrs, and continued with a washing process for 5 days. For the control, a simple immersion treatment was set as a benchmark to compare the decellularization efficiency. Histological and biochemical assays were conducted to investigate the cell removal and retention of the vital extracellular matrix. Surface ultrastructure of the prepared scaffolds was evaluated using scanning electron microscope at 5,000× magnification viewed from cross and longitudinal sections. In addition, the biomechanical properties were investigated through ball indentation testing to study the stiffness, residual forces and compression characteristics. Statistical significance between the samples was determined with p-value =0.05.
Results: Histological and biochemical assays confirmed the elimination of antigenic cellular components with the retention of the vital extracellular matrix within the sonicated scaffolds. However, there was a significant removal of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The surface histoarchitecture portrayed the preserved collagen fibril orientation and arrangement. However, there were minor disruptions on the structure, with few empty micropores formed which represented cell lacunae. The biomechanical properties of bioscaffolds showed the retention of viscoelastic behavior of the scaffolds which mimic native tissues. After immersion treatment, those scaffolds had poor results compared to the sonicated scaffolds due to the inefficiency of the treatment.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reported that the closed sonication treatment system had high capabilities to prepare ideal bioscaffolds with excellent removal of cellular components, and retained extracellular matrix and biomechanical properties.
Keywords: sonication, meniscus, scaffolds, decellularization, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine
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