Development of a Solid Supersaturable Micelle of Revaprazan for Improved Dissolution and Oral Bioavailability Using Box-Behnken Design
Received 23 December 2020
Accepted for publication 23 January 2021
Published 17 February 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 1245—1259
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster
Yoon Tae Goo,1,* Cheol-Ki Sa,1,* Ji Yeh Choi,2 Min Song Kim,1 Chang Hyun Kim,1 Hyeon Kyun Kim,1 Young Wook Choi1
1College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Young Wook Choi
College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heuksuk-Ro, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul, 06974, Korea
Tel +82 2 820 5609
Purpose: To enhance the oral bioavailability of revaprazan (RVP), a novel solid, supersaturable micelle (SSuM) was developed.
Methods: Surfactants and solid carriers were screened based on a solubility and a flowability test, respectively. Supersaturating agents, including Poloxamer 407 (P407), were screened. The SSuM was optimized using a Box-Behnken design with three independent variables, including Gelucire 44/14:Brij L4 (G44/BL4; X1) and the amounts of Florite PS-10 (FLO; X2) and Vivapur 105 (VP105; X3), and three response variables, ie, dissolution efficiency at 30 min (Y1), dissolution enhancing capacity (Y2), and Carr’s index (Y3). The solid state property was evaluated, and a dissolution test was conducted. RVP, Revanex®, solid micelle (P407-free from the composition of SSuM), and SSuM were orally administrated to rats (RVP 20 mg equivalent/kg) for in vivo pharmacokinetic study.
Results: G44 and BL4 showed great solubility, with a critical micelle concentration range of 119.2– 333.0 μg/mL. P407 had an excellent supersaturating effect. FLO and VP105 were selected as solid carriers, with a critical solidifying ratio (g/mL) of 0.30 and 0.91, respectively. With optimized values of X1 (– 0.41), X2 (0.31), and X3 (– 0.78), RVP (200 mg)-containing SSuM consisting of G44 (253.8 mg), BL4 (106.2 mg), FLO (99.3 mg), VP105 (199.8 mg), and P407 (40 mg) was developed, resulting in Y1 (40.3%), Y2 (0.008), and Y3 (12.3%). RVP existed in an amorphous state in the optimized SSuM, and the SSuM formed a nanosized dispersion in the aqueous phase, with approximately 71.7% dissolution at 2 h. The optimized SSuM improved the relative bioavailability of RVP in rats by approximately 478%, 276%, and 161% compared to raw RVP, Revanex®, and solid micelle, respectively.
Conclusion: The optimized SSuM has great potential for the development of solidified formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs with improved oral absorption.
Keywords: revaprazan, supersaturation, solid micelle, Box-Behnken design, dissolution, oral bioavailability
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