Development of a method to maximize the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation intensity in women with fibromyalgia
Received 17 March 2018
Accepted for publication 31 May 2018
Published 10 October 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 2269—2278
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael Schatman
Carol GT Vance,1 Ruth L Chimenti,1 Dana L Dailey,1 Katherine Hadlandsmyth,2 M Bridget Zimmerman,3 Katharine M Geasland,1 Jonathan M Williams,4 Ericka N Merriwether,1,5 Li Alemo Munters,4 Barbara A Rakel,6 Leslie J Crofford,4 Kathleen A Sluka1
1Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Department of Medicine/Rheumatology & Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 5Department of Physical Therapy, New York University, New York, NY, USA; 6College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
Introduction: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological intervention clinically used for pain relief. The importance of utilizing the adequate stimulation intensity is well documented; however, clinical methods to achieve the highest possible intensity are not established.
Objectives: Our primary aim was to determine if exposure to the full range of clinical levels of stimulation, from sensory threshold to noxious, would result in higher final stimulation intensities. A secondary aim explored the association of pain, disease severity, and psychological variables with the ability to achieve higher final stimulation intensity.
Methods: Women with fibromyalgia (N=143) were recruited for a dual-site randomized controlled trial – Fibromyalgia Activity Study with TENS (FAST). TENS electrodes and stimulation were applied to the lumbar area, and intensity was increased to sensory threshold (ST), then to “strong but comfortable” (SC1), then to “noxious” (N). This was followed by a reduction to the final stimulation intensity of “strong but comfortable” (SC2). We called this the Setting of Intensity of TENS (SIT) test.
Results: There was a significant increase from SC1 (37.5 mA IQR: 35.6–39.0) to SC2 (39.2 mA IQR: 37.1–45.3) (p<0.0001) with a mean increase of 1.7 mA (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2). Linear regression analysis showed that those with the largest increase between SC1 and N had the largest increase in SC2–SC1. Further, those with older age and higher anxiety were able to achieve greater increases in intensity (SC2–SC1) using the SIT test.
Conclusion: The SC2–SC1 increase was significantly associated with age and anxiety, with greater mean increases associated with older age and higher anxiety. Thus, although all patients may benefit from this protocol, older women and women with elevated anxiety receive the greatest benefit.
Keywords: pain, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, TENS, fibromyalgia, dosage
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