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Development of a liposome-based formulation for vitamin K1 nebulization on the skin

Authors Campani V, Marchese D, Pitaro MT, Pitaro M, Grieco P, De Rosa G

Received 27 November 2013

Accepted for publication 22 January 2014

Published 10 April 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 1823—1832

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S58365

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Virginia Campani,1,2 Dario Marchese,1 Maria Teresa Pitaro,2 Michele Pitaro,2 Paolo Grieco,1 Giuseppe De Rosa1

1Department of Pharmacy, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Xenus Srl, Rome, Italy

Abstract: Vitamin K1 (VK1) is a very lipophilic and photosensitive molecule contained in some vegetables. Recently, the use of VK1 on the skin has been proposed for different pharmaceutical or cosmeceutical applications. In this study, an innovative strategy for the administration of VK1 on the skin was proposed. In particular, to overcome the drawbacks associated with a VK1-containing fatty ointment available on the market, an aqueous formulation suitable to be administered by nebulization was developed. The use of liposomes encapsulating VK1 enabled issues due to the lipophilicity of VK1 to be overcome. Thus, different liposomal formulations, with different VK1 concentrations, were prepared and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, VK1 encapsulation into liposomes, and stability of the formulations during storage. After a first phase of screening, the selected formulation was tested by a portable device for nebulization. No alteration of the vesicle characteristics following the liposome supply through the nebulizer was found. Finally, permeation studies were carried out on pig-excised skin in Franz cells and the newly developed formulation was compared to a marketed VK1-containing ointment. In this test, an enhanced VK1 accumulation into the skin was found when using nebulized liposomes. In conclusion, in order to administer VK1 on the skin, the newly developed formulation could be a valid alternative to the products available on the market today. In particular, the use of liposomes could facilitate the multiple administrations per day by aerosol, but also increase, compared to a semi-solid preparation, the accumulation of VK1 into the epidermis and dermis.

Keywords: liposomes, liposome stability, liposome nebulization, Franz cells

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