Development and validation of the Patient’s Health Belief Questionnaire on Psychiatric Treatment
Received 10 January 2019
Accepted for publication 23 February 2019
Published 10 April 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 527—536
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Carlos De Las Cuevas,1 Jose de Leon2–4
1Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology and Psychiatry, Universidad de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain; 2Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Psychiatry and Neurosciences Research Group (CTS-549), Institute of Neurosciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 4Biomedical Research Centre in Mental Health Net (CIBERSAM), Santiago Apostol Hospital, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain
Background: Our previous studies with regard to adherence to psychiatric medications measured pharmacophobia, psychological reactance, and locus of control using a 42-item questionnaire requiring ~1.5 hours for completion. This study aims to develop the Patient’s Health Belief Questionnaire on Psychiatric Treatment, a 17-item inventory which requires only 15 minutes to complete.
Methods: Our new questionnaire with five subscales was based on 17 items from three previously validated scales (on pharmacophobia, psychological reactance, and locus of control). In 588 consecutive Spanish psychiatric outpatients taking 1,114 psychiatric medications, we studied the responses to the questionnaire; to validate it, medication adherence was assessed by the Sidorkiewicz tool.
Results: Validation of the construct was addressed by performing two exploratory factor analyses independent of each other (one for the eight-item section measuring the attitudes of patients toward psychotropic drugs and one for the nine-item section measuring perceived health locus of control [HLOC]), which led to five subscales that were called Positive and Negative Aspects of Medications, Doctor-HLOC, Internal-HLOC, and Psychological Reactance. The five subscales showed better internal consistency when corrected by number of items than the original 17-item scale. Logistic regression models of the continuous scores, dichotomized subscales, and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis indicated that all five subscales help in predicting adequate adherence, although the various subscales behave differently in different analyses.
Conclusion: Future studies need to verify and further extend the preliminary findings of this study that the questionnaire may have construct and predictive validity.
Keywords: attitude to health, medication adherence, health behavior, psychiatry
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