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Development and validation of the Patient Opioid Education Measure

Authors Wallace LS, Wexler RK, Miser WF, McDougle L, Haddox JD

Received 29 June 2013

Accepted for publication 20 July 2013

Published 5 September 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 663—681


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Lorraine S Wallace,1 Randell K Wexler,1 W Frederick Miser,1 Leon McDougle,1 J David Haddox2,3

1The Ohio State University, Department of Family Medicine, Columbus, OH, 2Purdue Pharma LP, One Stanford Forum, Stanford, CT, 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

Background: Although there are screening tools to aid clinicians in assessing the risk of opioid misuse, an instrument to assess opioid-related knowledge is not currently available. The purpose of this study was to develop a content-valid, understandable, readable, and reliable Patient Opioid Education Measure (POEM).
Methods: Using concept mapping, clinicians caring for patients with chronic pain participated in brainstorming, sorting, and rating need-to-know information for patients prescribed opioids. Concept mapping analyses identified seven clusters addressing knowledge and expectations associated with opioid use, including medicolegal issues, prescribing policies, safe use and handling, expected outcomes, side effects, pharmacology, and warnings.
Results: The 49-item POEM was verbally administered to 83 patients (average age 51.3 ± 9.8 years, 77.1% female, 47.1% African American) taking opioids for chronic nonmalignant pain. Patients averaged in total 63.9% ± 14.3% (range 23%–91%) correct responses on the POEM. The POEM demonstrated substantial test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient 0.87). The POEM had a mean readability Lexile (L) score of 805.9 ± 257.3 L (equivalent to approximately a US fifth grade reading level), with individual items ranging from 280 L to 1370 L.
Conclusion: The POEM shows promise for rapidly identifying patients' opioid-related knowledge gaps and expectations. Correcting misunderstandings and gaps could result in safer use of opioids in a clinical care setting.

Keywords: opioid, knowledge, pain, questionnaire

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Other article by this author:

Voices that may not otherwise be heard: a qualitative exploration into the perspectives of primary care patients living with chronic pain

Wallace LS, Wexler RK, McDougle L, Miser WF, Haddox JD

Journal of Pain Research 2014, 7:291-299

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