Back to Journals » Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety » Volume 12

Development and Psychometric Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate Knowledge and Attitude Towards Medication Error Reporting Among Pharmacists

Authors Mamat R, Awang SA, Ab Rahman AF

Received 10 February 2020

Accepted for publication 8 May 2020

Published 14 May 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 95—101


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Rajender R Aparasu

Ruzmayuddin Mamat,1 Siti Asarida Awang,2 Ab Fatah Ab Rahman3

1Department of Pharmacy, Klinik Kesihatan Bandar Kuantan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacy, Pejabat Kesihatan Daerah Kuantan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut, Terengganu 22200, Malaysia

Correspondence: Ab Fatah Ab Rahman
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut, Terengganu 22200, Malaysia

Purpose: Assessment of medication errors (ME) is crucial to improving the quality of health care. A questionnaire that can be used to explore pharmacists’ perspectives regarding ME would be very useful as part of an ongoing process of quality improvement in patient care. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to measure perceived causes of ME and attitude towards ME reporting among pharmacists.
Methods: The questionnaire was developed from the literature together with outcomes from focus group discussions. It was divided into two domains which are knowledge on ME and attitude towards ME reporting. Content validity index (I-CVI), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess test–retest reliability were obtained during the validation process.
Results: Overall Cronbach alpha for internal consistency was good (0.742), where subscale of the questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, with Cronbach alpha value 0.83 for knowledge and 0.70 for reporting behaviour attitude. The I-CVI showed good scores (knowledge=0.88) and (attitude=0.81), while ICC was moderately accepted with a value of 0.77. Two factors were extracted from the 16 items in EFA.
Conclusion: The questionnaire to assess knowledge on ME and attitude towards ME reporting among pharmacists is valid and reliable. It demonstrates good psychometric properties.

Keywords: medication error, pharmacist, psychometric validation, hospital, attitude

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]