Development and Evaluation of an Educational Program for Community Pharmacists on Cardiovascular Risk Assessment
Received 15 September 2019
Accepted for publication 6 March 2020
Published 22 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 623—632
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Carotenuto
Monica Zolezzi,1 Oraib Abdallah,2 Sowndramalingam Sankaralingam1
1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
Correspondence: Sowndramalingam Sankaralingam
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Building I 06, 2nd Floor, Room S A2.06, Doha, Qatar
Tel +974 4403 5618
Fax +974 4403 5551
Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment is an important strategy for the prevention of CVD. Pharmacists play an important role in CVD risk assessment and management (CVDRAM). Our previous study identified gaps in knowledge among community pharmacists for the provision of CVDRAM services as assessed through patient simulation. Therefore, our objectives were: a) to develop and evaluate an educational program on CVD risk assessment for community pharmacists, b) to assess the knowledge and skills of participating pharmacists in assessing and managing CVD risk before and after enrolling in the educational program and c) to explore pharmacists’ satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of the educational program.
Methods: Using a blended learning instructional approach, the educational program for a subset of 25 community pharmacists recruited from our previous study consisted of two face-to-face workshops, and an online 5-module course on CVD risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and smoking cessation based on principles of adult learning. A repeated measures study design was utilized by measuring participants’ knowledge on pre- and post-questionnaires and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the conclusion of the educational program was also used to assess its impact on the knowledge and skills of community pharmacists in the provision of CVD risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) services. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 23 pharmacists while the OSCE was completed by 8 pharmacists. In addition, a survey assessed the pharmacists’ level of satisfaction with the educational program.
Results: At the conclusion of the educational program, the participating pharmacists achieved knowledge and skills for the provision of CVDRAM services. Knowledge scores in relation to CVDRAM significantly improved after the educational program [out of a maximum of 20 points, the median (interquartile range) = 9 (7– 9) at pre- vs 12 (12– 13) at post-educational program], p< 0.001. On the OSCE, the median (interquartile range) scores for Stations 1 and 2 were 66 (63– 71) and 71 (67– 76), respectively. Out of the 21 pharmacists that completed the satisfaction survey, 71% were very satisfied and 29% were satisfied with the educational program.
Conclusion: The educational program improved pharmacists’ knowledge and skills for the provision of CVDRAM services.
Keywords: community pharmacists, cardiovascular disease risk assessment, educational program, pharmacists’ preparedness, evaluation
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]