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Determinants of Low Birth Weight Among Newborns Delivered in Public Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Case-Control Study

Authors Baye Mulu G, Gebremichael B, Wondwossen Desta K, Adimasu Kebede M, Asmare Aynalem Y, Bimirew Getahun M

Received 14 January 2020

Accepted for publication 12 March 2020

Published 24 March 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 119—126


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Roosy Aulakh

Getaneh Baye Mulu,1 Bereket Gebremichael,2 Kalkidan Wondwossen Desta,2 Mekonen Adimasu Kebede,2 Yared Asmare Aynalem,1 Melaku Bimirew Getahun3

1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3College of Health Sciences, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Getaneh Baye Mulu

Background: Birth weight predicts the infant’s future health, growth, and viability. It is a good summary measure of many public health problems that include long-term maternal malnutrition, and poor health care during pregnancy. In developing countries, a birth weight below 2500 g is the leading cause of infant and child mortality. In Ethiopia, LBW had more than 13% prevalence. Determinants of low birth weight were yet to be completely understood. Therefore, this study investigates the predictors of low birth weight.
Objective: To identify determinants of low birth weight among newborns delivered at Addis Ababa public hospitals, 2019.
Methods: Institution-based unmatched case-control study was conducted among 279 (93 cases and 186 controls) newborns delivered from March 15 to April 30, 2019, in Addis Ababa public hospitals. Consecutive and systematic random sampling were employed to select cases and controls, respectively. Data were collected by interview using structured and pretested questionnaire. Finally, data were entered using Epi-data 4.2 and analysed using SPSS version 25. Factors having P-value < 0.25 in the bivariable logistic regression model were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Statistical significance was declared at P-value ≤ 0.05.
Results: From 279 selected participants, 270 new-borns (90 cases and 180 controls) participated. In logistic regression model, significant association was found with gestational hypertension [AOR 3.7 (95% CI 1.6– 8.7)], maternal height [AOR 5.7 (95% CI 1.7– 19.7)], incomplete antenatal visit [AOR 6.7 (95% CI 3.2– 15.3)], and low maternal educational status [AOR 3.8 (95% CI 1.3– 10.9)].
Conclusion: Predictors of low birth weight were maternal height < 155 cm, complications during pregnancy, gestational hypertension, and incomplete Antenatal visit, and low maternal education. Stakeholders would better work together to reduce low birth weight by preparing appropriate intervention and monitoring policy.

Keywords: low birth weight, determinants, case-control, Addis Ababa

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