Back to Journals » Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy » Volume 13

Determinants of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Among Adult Patients with Diabetes Attending the Diabetic Clinic in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Unmatched Case–Control Study

Authors Woldemariam GT, Atnafu NT, Radie YT, Wolde GT, Gebreagziabher TT, Gebrehiwot TG, Teka YH, Hagos MG, Hagezom HM, Yigzaw HB, Gebremedhin HT, Mezgebo HM, Gebremariam A

Received 25 June 2020

Accepted for publication 19 September 2020

Published 15 October 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 3739—3747


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Guesh Teklu Woldemariam,1 Niguse Tadele Atnafu,2 Yosief Tsige Radie,2 Getahun Tarekegn Wolde,3 Teklehaimanot Tesfay Gebreagziabher,1 Tesfay Gebreslassie Gebrehiwot,1 Yared Haileselassie Teka,1 Milete Gebrehiwot Hagos,1 Haftamu Mamo Hagezom,4 Hailu Belay Yigzaw,4 Haftom Tesfay Gebremedhin,4 Hagos Mehari Mezgebo,4 Alem Gebremariam5

1Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 5Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Tigrai, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Guesh Teklu Woldemariam
Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Postal Address: 50, Tigrai, Ethiopia
Tel +251940304140

Background: Diabetic foot ulcer is among the commonest complications of diabetic mellitus attributed to a number of morbidity and mortality cases in diabetic patients. Nowadays, the incidence of diabetic foot ulcer is increasing due to the increased prevalence of diabetes. However, the risk factors of the problem are less studied in Ethiopia. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the determinants of diabetic foot ulcer among adult patients with diabetes attending a diabetic clinic in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2019.
Patients and Methods: An institution-based unmatched case–control study was conducted on 161 patients with diabetes (53 patients with diabetes with foot ulcer and 108 patients with diabetes without foot ulcer). Cases were selected from patients with diabetes with foot ulcer by consecutive sampling technique and controls from patients with diabetes without diabetic foot ulcer by systematic random sampling technique. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association between the dependent and independent variables. All variables with a P-value< 0.25 were included in the multivariable analysis. Statistical significance was declared at P-value< 0.05 with 95% confidence interval.
Results: In this study, 28 (52.8%) cases and 55 (50.9%) controls were male. Taking insulin alone (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=1.04– 7.23), having peripheral neuropathy (AOR=7.56, 95% CI=2.82– 20.24), not inspecting feet daily (AOR=5.61, 95% CI=2.24– 14.05), and using moisturizing cream between toes (AOR=3.35, 95% CI=1.35– 8.32) were positively associated with diabetic foot ulcer, whereas employed (AOR=0.35, 95% CI=0.14– 0.87) and combined treatment (insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents) (AOR=0.11, 95% CI=0.02– 0.57) were negatively associated with diabetic foot ulcer.
Conclusion: Diabetic foot ulcer was significantly associated with occupation, kind of treatment of diabetes mellitus taking, peripheral neuropathy, inspecting feet daily, and putting moisturizing cream between toes. It will be helpful if diabetic patients inspect their feet on a daily basis and do not put moisturizing cream between their toes.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, determinants, Ethiopia

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]