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Determinants of Anemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic at Public Health Facilities in Kacha Birra District, Southern Ethiopia

Authors Teshome MS, Meskel DH, Wondafrash B

Received 4 May 2020

Accepted for publication 5 August 2020

Published 24 September 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1007—1015


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Melese Sinaga Teshome,* Desalech H Meskel,* Beyene Wondafrash

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Public Health, Health Institute, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Melese Sinaga Teshome Email

Background: Anemia is accountable for 20% of maternal death globally, and it is associated with premature birth, low birth weight, and infant death. According to the WHO report of 2008, 57.1% of pregnant women were anemic in Africa. In Ethiopia, anemia among pregnant women is 62.7%. There were no data in the study area that identified the determinants of anemia.
Objective: To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending ANC clinic in public health facilities in Kacha Birra District, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods: An institutional-based unmatched case–control study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in public health facilities in Kacha Birra District, Southern Ethiopia, from February 1/2019–May 30/2019. An aggregate of 117 cases and 227 controls were involved in the study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Controls were pregnant ladies whose blood hemoglobin level was 11 g/dl and above at their first antenatal care clinic, and cases were pregnant ladies whose hemoglobin level less than 11 g/dl. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to isolate independent predictors of anemia.
Results: An overall of 344 respondents (117 cases and 227controls) were included in this study with a response rate of 100%. On multivariable logistic regression models, significant predictors of anemia were: rural residence [AOR= 2.9,95% CI:1.18– 5.84], previous history of heavy menstrual blood flow [AOR=2.75, 95% CI: 2.66– 28.53], age of mother [AOR=4.013, 95% CI: 1.08– 14.90], parasitic infection [AOR=6.39, 95% CI: 1.226– 33.362], food taboo (aversion) [AOR= 3.92, CI: 95% 2.08– 7.35], drinking tea/coffee instantly after meal [AOR=18.49, 95% CI:6.89– 40.64].
Conclusion: Residence, previous heavy menstrual flow, age, parasitic infection, food taboo, and tea/coffee consumption immediately after meals were significant predictors of anemia among pregnant women. So, anemia prevention and control policy should include the promotion of counseling on the consumption of diversified and iron-enriched foods during pregnancy, prevention of parasitic infection as well as mass deworming, awareness creation on cultural norms that makes food aversion during pregnancy.

Keywords: determinants, anemia, pregnant women, case, control

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