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Detection of OXA-48 Gene in Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Urine Samples

Authors Gurung S, Kafle S, Dhungel B, Adhikari N, Thapa Shrestha U, Adhikari B, Banjara MR, Rijal KR, Ghimire P

Received 25 April 2020

Accepted for publication 24 June 2020

Published 14 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 2311—2321


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Sushma Gurung,1 Sonali Kafle,2 Binod Dhungel,1 Nabaraj Adhikari,1 Upendra Thapa Shrestha,1 Bipin Adhikari,3 Megha Raj Banjara,1 Komal Raj Rijal,1 Prakash Ghimire1

1Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Alka Hospital, Lalitpur, Nepal; 3Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Correspondence: Komal Raj Rijal
Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Introduction: Resistance to carbapenem in Gram-negative bacteria is attributable to their ability to produce carbapenemase enzymes. The main objective of this study was to detect the presence of blaOXA-48 genes in carbapenem-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urine samples from patients attending Alka Hospital, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur, Nepal.
Methods: A total of 1013 mid-stream urine samples were collected from patients with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) between April and September 2018. The identified isolates underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing using the modified Kirby–Bauer disc-diffusion method. Phenotypic carbapenemase production was confirmed by the modified Hodge test, and the blaOXA-48 gene was detected using conventional polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Out of 1013 urine samples, 15.2% (154/1013) had bacterial growth. Among the isolates, 91.5% (141/154) were Gram-negative bacteria, and E. coli was the most common bacterial isolate (62.9%; 97/154), followed by K. pneumoniae 15.6% (24/154). Among 121 bacterial isolates (97 E. coli isolates and 24 K. pneumoniae isolates), 70.3% (52/121) were multidrug-resistant E. coli and 29.7% (22/121) were multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae. In addition, 9.1% (11/121) were carbapenem resistant (both imipenem and meropenem resistant). Development of multidrug resistance and development of carbapenem resistance were significantly associated (p< 0.05). Of the 11 carbapenem-resistant isolates, only seven were carbapenemase producers; of these, 28.6% (2/7) were E. coli, 72.4% (5/7) were K. pneumoniae and 42.8% (3/7) had the blaOXA-48 gene. Of the three bacterial isolates with the blaOXA-48 gene, 33.3% (1/3) were E. coli and 66.7% (2/3) were K. pneumoniae.
Conclusion: One in ten isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were carbapenem resistant. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, one-third of E. coli and two-thirds of K. pneumoniae had the blaOXA-48 gene. OXA-48 serves as a potential agent to map the distribution of resistance among clinical isolates.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, AMR, carbapenem, carbapenemase, modified Hodge test, MHT, blaOXA-48 gene

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