Details of out-field regional recurrence after involved-field irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Authors Zhang X, Yu J, Li M, Zhu H
Received 20 November 2015
Accepted for publication 17 February 2016
Published 23 May 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 3049—3057
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Dekuang Zhao
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Min Li
Xiaoli Zhang,1,2 Jinming Yu,1,2 Minghuan Li,2 Hui Zhu2
1Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, People’s Republic of China
Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of out-field regional recurrence after involved-field irradiation (IFI) in definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (LA-ESCC) and identify the possible risk factors.
Patients and methods: Eighty patients with LA-ESCC who received CCRT with IFI between January 2003 and January 2009 at the Shandong Cancer Hospital were recruited and analyzed. Imaging scans demonstrating first sites of failure were compared with original computed tomography-based radiation treatment plans, and failure patterns were defined as in-field, out-field regional (failures in initially uninvolved regional nodes), and distant failures.
Results: After a median follow-up time of 52.6 months, 24 patients had evidence of out-field regional failure, 43 patients had evidence of in-field failure, and 33 patients had the evidence of distant failure. Multivariate analysis revealed that out-field regional failure was associated with clinical tumor status (T4 vs T1–3, odds ratio [OR] =6.547, P=0.002), tumor length (>8 cm vs ≤8 cm, OR =4.130, P=0.036), response to CCRT (complete response vs no complete response, OR =2.646, P=0.035), and in-field failure (no in-field failure vs in-field failure, OR =1.32, P=0.016). Survival analyses indicated that, compared to in-field failure or distant failure alone group, out-field regional failure alone group tended to have longer overall (P=0.006) and progression-free survival (P=0.164).
Conclusion: Our data suggested that the predominant failure pattern after IFI was not out-field regional failure, which also did not influence survival significantly, and that out-field regional failure did not shorten the time to disease recurrence, which also did not influence survival significantly. In addition, out-field regional failure was likely to appear later than in-field and distant failures. The relatively advanced local disease followed by poor local control and distant metastases contributed more to the poor outcome of LA-ESCC. Further prospective studies are needed to verify the findings of this study.
Keywords: failure patterns, prognosis, risk factors
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