Depression, Anxiety, Psychological Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life in People Living with HIV
Authors Cai S, Liu L, Wu X, Pan Y, Yu T, Ou H
Received 22 June 2020
Accepted for publication 13 August 2020
Published 25 August 2020 Volume 2020:14 Pages 1533—1540
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Naifeng Liu
Shaohang Cai,1,* Lili Liu,2,* Xiaolu Wu,3 Ye Pan,3 Tao Yu,1 Hongjie Ou3
1Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Hongjie Ou Email email@example.com
Objective: To investigate the levels of depression, anxiety, psychological symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to assess the risk factors.
Methods: A total of 121 people living with HIV (PLWHIV) were included, and 61 health individuals were selected as healthy controls. Their sociodemographic information was collected. The Self-Rating Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Symptom Checklist 90 and Short-Form Health Survey-36 were used.
Results: The depression score was higher in PLWHIV (47.83 ± 10.58 vs 36.52 ± 9.69 P< 0.001). Similar results were observed in anxiety score (41.06 ± 11.24 vs 32.31 ± 7.99, P< 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that younger age (OR=0.929, P=0.004) and smoking (OR=4.297, P=0.001) were identified as independent factors of depression while young age (OR=0.890, P=0.008) and alcohol consumption (OR=4.801, P=0.002) were independent factors of anxiety. Results of SCL-90 questionnaire showed that hostility, paranoia ideation were significantly more pronounced when PLWHIV had depression. Results of HRQOL showed that physical functioning (82.88 ± 14.73 vs 93.41 ± 9.22, P< 0.001) and mental health (57.46 ± 17.64 vs 65.68 ± 17.44, P=0.012) were lower in PLWHIV with depression. For PLWHIV with anxiety, vitality (56.96 ± 14.61 vs 67.58 ± 17.57, P=0.004), social functioning (64.52 ± 23.97 vs 74.64 ± 21.47, P=0.036) and mental health (52.57 ± 14.21 vs 65.03 ± 17.98, P=0.001) were lower. High depression level was showed the independent risk factor associated with poor HRQOL (OR=0.370, P=0.001).
Conclusion: Depression and anxiety were very common in PLWHIV. Physicians should not only focus on the antiviral treatment of these patients but also monitor their mental status, especially that of younger patients. For PLWHIV with depression and anxiety, psychological intervention should be provided, and social role rebuilding may be good for depression and anxiety alleviation.
Keywords: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, human immunodeficiency virus, anxiety, mental disorder, depression
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