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Dental Materials Incorporated with Nanometals and Their Effect on the Bacterial Growth of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors Rawashdeh RY, Sawafta R, Malkawi HI

Received 27 February 2020

Accepted for publication 12 May 2020

Published 18 June 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 4325—4331

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S251573

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas Webster


Rabeah Yousef Rawashdeh,1 Reyad Sawafta,2 Hanan I Malkawi1

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan; 2QuarTek Corporation, Asheboro, NC 27203, USA

Correspondence: Rabeah Yousef Rawashdeh
Yarmouk University, Shafiq Irshidat Street, Irbid 21163, Jordan
Tel +962-2-721-1111
Email rawashdehrabeah@yu.edu.jo

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different commercially used dental materials (RelyX Luting Plus and Dyract Extra) mixed with either a metallic ionic solution or a colloidal suspension of metallic nanoparticles. Both the solution and the suspension contained a mixture of silver, copper, and lithium ions.
Methods: The metal/ion-incorporated dental materials were prepared into disk-shaped samples and tested against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The susceptibility of bacteria against the antibacterial dental disks was tested using two methods: counting the colony-forming units per milliliter and disk diffusion (Kirby–Bauer). The incorporated materials (Dyract and Rely cement) were tested for ion release using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Results: Assessment showed efficient antibacterial activity of metal ion–incorporated Rely luting cement, exhibited by the formation of inhibition zones larger than those formed by the standard antibiotic, as well as a reduction in bacterial number of sevenfold after incubation for 24 hours. Dyract material incorporated with nanoparticles showed no significant clear zones and had no inhibiting effect on bacterial colony numbers after incubation for 24 hours. The release of silver, copper, and lithium metal ions depended on the type of both dental material and the incorporated nanoagents. The metal ion–incorporated Rely Plus cement released the highest levels of metal ions, which was attributed to its antibacterial efficiency.
Conclusion: Rely Plus cement incorporated with the nanoparticle suspension demonstrated high antibacterial potency, due to the release of the highest concentrations of silver, copper, and lithium metal ions. This work is the first direct comparative study of dental materials with different forms of nanomixtures (metallic nanoparticles and soluble metallic ions) and their antibacterial effects after incubation with bacterial culture for 24 hours.

Keywords: RelyX Luting Plus, Dyract Extra, metallic ionic solution, suspension of metallic nanoparticles, antibacterial activity

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