Dendritic cell vaccination for glioblastoma multiforme: review with focus on predictive factors for treatment response
Joost Dejaegher,1 Stefaan Van Gool,2 Steven De Vleeschouwer1
1Department of Neurosciences, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain cancer. Since median overall survival with multimodal standard therapy is only 15 months, there is a clear need for additional effective and long-lasting treatments. Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination is an experimental immunotherapy being tested in several Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. In these trials, safety and feasibility have been proven, and promising clinical results have been reported. On the other hand, it is becoming clear that not every GBM patient will benefit from this highly personalized treatment. Defining the subgroup of patients likely to respond to DC vaccination will position this option correctly amongst other new GBM treatment modalities, and pave the way to incorporation in standard therapy. This review provides an overview of GBM treatment options and focuses on the currently known prognostic and predictive factors for response to DC vaccination. In this way, it will provide the clinician with the theoretical background to refer patients who might benefit from this treatment.
Keywords: immunotherapy, personalized medicine, brain tumor, stratification
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