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Delivery vehicle of muscle-derived irisin based on silk/calcium silicate/sodium alginate composite scaffold for bone regeneration

Authors Xin X, Wu J, Zheng A, Jiao D, Liu Y, Cao L, Jiang X

Received 6 November 2018

Accepted for publication 8 January 2019

Published 22 February 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1451—1467

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S193544

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Thiruganesh Ramasamy

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun


Xianzhen Xin,1,* Jiannan Wu,1,* Ao Zheng,1 Delong Jiao,1 Yang Liu,2 Lingyan Cao,1 Xinquan Jiang1

1Department of Prosthodontics, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Advanced Dental Technology and Materials, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology and Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 2The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Irisin is a cytokine produced by skeletal muscle and usually plays a pivotal role in inducing fat browning and regulating energy expenditure. In recent years, it was found that irisin might be the molecular entity responsible for muscle–bone connectivity and is useful in osteogenesis induction.
Materials and methods: To study its effect on bone regeneration, we developed silk/calcium silicate/sodium alginate (SCS) composite scaffold based on an interpenetrating network hydrogel containing silk fibroin, calcium silicate, sodium alginate. Then we loaded irisin on the SCS before coating it with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The SCS/P scaffold was physically characterized and some in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to evaluate the scaffold effect on bone regeneration.
Results: The SCS/P scaffold was showed a porous sponge structure pursuant to scanning electron microscopy analysis. The release kinetics assay demonstrated that irisin was stably released from the irisin-loaded hybrid system (i/SCS/P system) to 50% within 7 days. Moreover, osteoinductive studies using bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro exhibited the i/SCS/P system improved the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and enhanced the expression levels of a series of osteogenic markers containing Runx-2, ALP, BMP2, Osterix, OCN, and OPN. Alizarin red staining also demonstrated the promotion of osteogenesis induced by i/SCS/P scaffolds. In addition, in vivo studies showed that increased bone regeneration with better mineralization and higher quality was found during the repair of rat calvarial defects through utilizing the i/SCS/P system.
Conclusion: These data provided strong evidence that the composite i/SCS/P would be a promising substitute for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: silk fibroin, biocompatible scaffold, bone regeneration, irisin, delivery vehicle

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