Decreased Staphylococcus aureus and increased osteoblast density on nanostructured electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on titanium without the use of pharmaceuticals
Authors Mathew D, Bhardwaj G, Wang Q, Sun L, Ercan B, Geetha M, Webster T
Received 10 October 2013
Accepted for publication 5 November 2013
Published 8 April 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 1775—1781
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Dennis Mathew,1 Garima Bhardwaj,1,2 Qi Wang,3 Linlin Sun,3 Batur Ercan,3 Manisavagam Geetha,1 Thomas J Webster3,4
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 4Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, University of King Abdulaziz, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Background: Plasma-spray deposition of hydroxyapatite on titanium (Ti) has proven to be a suboptimal solution to improve orthopedic-implant success rates, as demonstrated by the increasing number of orthopedic revision surgeries due to infection, implant loosening, and a myriad of other reasons. This could be in part due to the high heat involved during plasma-spray deposition, which significantly increases hydroxyapatite crystal growth into the nonbiologically inspired micron regime. There has been a push to create nanotopographies on implant surfaces to mimic the physiological nanostructure of native bone and, thus, improve osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions and inhibit bacteria functions. Among the several techniques that have been adopted to develop nanocoatings, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive, versatile, and effective material-processing technique.
Objective: The in vitro study reported here aimed to determine for the first time bacteria responses to hydroxyapatite coated on Ti via EPD.
Results: There were six and three times more osteoblasts on the electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti compared with Ti (control) and plasma-spray-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti after 5 days of culture, respectively. Impressively, there were 2.9 and 31.7 times less Staphylococcus aureus on electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti compared with Ti (control) and plasma-spray-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti after 18 hours of culture, respectively.
Conclusion: Compared with uncoated Ti and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coated on Ti, the results provided significant promise for the use of EPD to improve bone-cell density and be used as an antibacterial coating without resorting to the use of antibiotics.
Keywords: bacteria, nanotechnology, electrophoretic deposition, inhibition
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]