Dalbavancin in the treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections: a review
Jason W Bennett1, James S Lewis II2, Michael W Ellis1
1Department of Medicine-Infectious Disease Service, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine-Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
Abstract: Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among strains of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus spp. have been widely documented. At least 50% of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in intensive care units in the US and UK are due methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Drug resistance is not confined to hospitals, and community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains are now common causes of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTIs) in many regions. Dalbavancin is a novel parenterally administered semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide similar to the naturally produced glycopeptides vancomycin and teicoplanin. Dalbavancin features a multifaceted mechanism of action that inhibits bacterial cell wall formation by two different mechanisms that enhances its activity against a wide range of gram-positive bacteria including staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, and some anaerobes. Additionally, dalbavancin possesses unique pharmacokinetic properties, the most significant of which is a long terminal half-life that allows for once weekly dosing. This attribute may prove to yield clinical and cost benefit. Overall, clinical trials indicate that dalbavancin is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective antimicrobial agent. In the largest investigation evaluating dalbavancin for the treatment of cSSTIs, it appeared to be as effective as linezolid. Dalbavancin, which is expected to receive FDA approval in 2008, appears to be a promising new antimicrobial agent for the treatment of cSSTIs.
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