Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 9 » Issue 1

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity caused by yttrium oxide nanoparticles in HEK293 cells

Authors Selvaraj V, Bodapati S, Murray E, Rice KM, Winston N, Shokuhfar T, Zhao Y, Blough E

Received 7 August 2013

Accepted for publication 23 November 2013

Published 12 March 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 1379—1391

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S52625

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Vellaisamy Selvaraj,1 Sravanthi Bodapati,1 Elizabeth Murray,2 Kevin M Rice,1 Nicole Winston,1,3 Tolou Shokuhfar,4 Yu Zhao,4 Eric Blough1,3,5

1Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, 2Department of Integrated Science and Technology, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, School of Pharmacy, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA; 4Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA; 5Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA

Background: The increased use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has caused new concerns about the potential exposure to biological systems and the potential risk that these materials may pose on human health. Here, we examined the effects of exposure to different concentrations (0–50 µg/mL) and incubation times (10 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours) of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) NPs on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Changes in cellular morphology, cell viability, cell membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death (apoptosis and necrosis), and the DNA damage after NP exposure were compared to the effects seen following incubation with paraquat, a known toxicant.
Results: The 24-hour inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of Y2O3 NPs (41±5 nm in size) in the HEK293 cells was found to be 108 µg/mL. Incubation with Y2O3 NPs (12.25–50 µg/mL) increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 expression and promoted apoptotic- and necrotic-mediated cell death in both a concentration and a time-dependent manner. Decreases in cell survivability were associated with elevations in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, and evidence of DNA damage, which were consistent with the possibility that mitochondria impairment may play an important role in the cytotoxic response.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate that the Y2O3 NP exposure is associated with increased cellular apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HEK293 cells.

Keywords: yttrium oxide nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, mitochondria damage, DNA damage, ROS production, apoptosis, necrosis

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Servant leadership: a case study of a Canadian health care innovator

Vanderpyl TH

Journal of Healthcare Leadership 2012, 4:9-16

Published Date: 16 February 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010