Cyclin D1 affects epithelial–mesenchymal transition in epithelial ovarian cancer stem cell-like cells
Authors Jiao J, Huang L, Ye F, Shi M, Cheng X, Wang X, Hu D, Xie X, Lu W
Received 18 February 2013
Accepted for publication 8 April 2013
Published 20 June 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 667—677
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Jie Jiao,1,4 Lu Huang,1 Feng Ye,1 MinFeng Shi,2 XiaoDong Cheng,3 XinYu Wang,3 DongXiao Hu,3 Xing Xie,3 WeiGuo Lu3
1Women's Reproductive Health Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Changhai Hospital, the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 3Women's Reproductive Health Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 4Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
Background: The association of cancer stem cells with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is receiving attention. We found in our previous study that EMT existed from CD24- phenotype cells to their differentiated cells. It was shown that cyclin D1 functioned in sustaining self-renewal independent of CDK4/CDK6 activation, but its effect on the EMT mechanism in ovarian cancer stem cells is unclear.
Methods: The anchorage-independent spheroids from ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line 3AO were formed in a serum-free medium. CD24- and CD24+ cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cell morphology, viability, apoptosis, and migratory ability were observed. Stem-related molecule Bmi-1, Oct-4 and EMT-related marker E-cadherin, and vimentin expressions were analyzed. Cyclin D1 expression in CD24- phenotype enriched spheroids was knocked down with small interfering RNA, and its effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration ability, and EMT-related phenotype after transfection were observed.
Results: In our study, CD24- cells presented stronger proliferative, anti-apoptosis capacity, and migratory ability, than CD24+ cells or parental cells. CD24- cells grew with a scattered spindle-shape within 3 days of culture and transformed into a cobblestone-like shape, identical to CD24+ cells or parental cells at 7 days of culture. CD24- cells or spheroids highly expressed cyclin D1, Bmi-1, and vimentin, and seldom expressed E-cadherin, while CD24+ or parental cells showed the opposite expression. Furthermore, cyclin D1-targeted small interfering RNA resulted in decreased vimentin expression in spheroids. Transfected cells also exhibited an obvious decrease in cell viability and migration, but an increase in cell apoptosis.
Conclusion: Cancer stem cell-like cells possess mesenchymal characteristics and EMT ability, and cyclin D1 involves in EMT mechanism, suggesting that EMT of cancer stem cell-like cells may play a key role in invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer.
Keywords: epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell, cyclin D1, ovarian cancer
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