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Current trends in the prevalence of Cryptococcus gattii in the United States and Canada

Authors Espinel-Ingroff A, Kidd S

Received 24 December 2014

Accepted for publication 3 February 2015

Published 11 May 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 89—97


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 6

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Ana Espinel-Ingroff,1 Sarah E Kidd2

1VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA, USA; 2National Mycology Reference Center, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Abstract: The incidence of Cryptococcus gattii infections in both Canada and the United States (US) is provided in this literature review beyond the British Columbia (BC) outbreak (1999–2013). Based on a search of the literature, case reports of C. gattii human infections including the prevalent molecular genotypes causing these infections in both Canada and the US have been documented since the C. gattii outbreak in BC. The literature reveals that: i) although C. gattii infections continue to be reported in both countries, the preliminary overall number of confirmed C. gattii infections may be decreasing in both Canada and the US (~23 cases each in 2012 versus ~17 and 20 cases, respectively in 2013); ii) C. gattii genotype distribution is region-dependent; iii) C. gattii is more frequently isolated from infections in the immunocompromised host (including acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS] infection) than previously expected; iv) although pulmonary disease is higher than in C. neoformans infections, central nervous system disease is also reported among patients infected with C. gattii.

Keywords: C. gattii, human infections, incidence, molecular epidemiology, United States, Canada

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