Current progress in the development of a prophylactic vaccine for HIV-1
Lena J Gamble1, Qiana L Matthews1,2
1Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Pathology, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Gene Therapy Center, 2Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
Abstract: Since its discovery and characterization in the early 1980s as a virus that attacks the immune system, there has been some success for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, due to the overwhelming public health impact of this virus, a vaccine is needed urgently. Despite the tireless efforts of scientist and clinicians, there is still no safe and effective vaccine that provides sterilizing immunity. A vaccine that provides sterilizing immunity against HIV infection remains elusive in part due to the following reasons: 1) degree of diversity of the virus, 2) ability of the virus to evade the hosts’ immunity, and 3) lack of appropriate animal models in which to test vaccine candidates. There have been several attempts to stimulate the immune system to provide protection against HIV-infection. Here, we will discuss attempts that have been made to induce sterilizing immunity, including traditional vaccination attempts, induction of broadly neutralizing antibody production, DNA vaccines, and use of viral vectors. Some of these attempts show promise pending continued research efforts.
Keywords: HIV, prophylactic vaccine, AIDS, viral vectors, sterilizing immunity
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