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Current Progress and Future Perspectives of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Biliary Tract Cancer

Authors Seesaha PK, Wang KX, Wang GQ, Cui TY, Zhao FJ, Pan LL, Li XC, Shu YQ, Chen XF

Received 27 June 2020

Accepted for publication 27 November 2020

Published 12 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 1873—1882

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S269671

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Jianmin Xu


Poshita-Kumari Seesaha,1,* Kang-Xin Wang,2,* Guo-Qun Wang,2 Ting-Yun Cui,2 Feng-Jiao Zhao,1 Lan-Lan Pan,1 Xiang-Cheng Li,3 Yong-Qian Shu,1 Xiao-Feng Chen1,2

1Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, Pukou Branch Hospital of Jiangsu Province Hospital (Nanjing Pukou Central Hospital), Nanjing, 211800, People’s Republic of China; 3Hepatobiliary Center of the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Xiao-Feng Chen
Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, No. 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, 210029, People’s Republic of China
Email [email protected]

Abstract: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm, with most patients presenting in an advanced stage. Systemic chemotherapy is the limited treatment available but is unsatisfactory, while targeted therapy is still awaiting validation from clinical trials. Given the potential effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in the treatment of BTC, this review aims to summarize the evidence-based benefits and predictive biomarkers for using inhibitors of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) ligand, or programmed cell death protein-1 and its ligand (PD-1 and PD-L1) as monotherapy or combined with other anti-tumor therapies, while also pointing out certain pitfalls with the use of ICIs which need to be addressed.

Keywords: biliary tract cancer, immunotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, clinical evidence, predictive biomarkers

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