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Current Perspectives of Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis and Clinical Management Challenges of True Knot of the Umbilical Cord

Authors Sherer DM, Amoabeng O, Dryer AM, Dalloul M

Received 10 October 2019

Accepted for publication 23 February 2020

Published 27 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 221—233

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S192260

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Everett F. Magann


David M Sherer, Opokua Amoabeng, Alexandra M Dryer, Mudar Dalloul

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, State University of New York (SUNY), Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY, USA

Correspondence: David M Sherer
Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, State University of New York (SUNY), Downstate Health Sciences University, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Box 24, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Tel +1 718 270-2081
Fax +1 718 270-4122
Email davidmsherer@gmail.com

Abstract: Umbilical cord accidents preceding labor are rare. Single and multiple nuchal cords, and true knot(s) of the umbilical cord, are often incidental findings noted at delivery of non-hypoxic non-acidotic newborns without any evidence of subsequent adverse neonatal outcome. In contrast to single nuchal cords, true knots of the umbilical cord, which occur in between 0.04% and 3% of all deliveries, have been associated with a reported 4 to  10 fold increased risk of stillbirth. First reported with real-time ultrasound, current widespread application of color Doppler, power Doppler and three-dimension sonography, has enabled increasingly more accurate prenatal sonographic diagnoses of true knot(s) of the umbilical cord. Reflecting the inability to visualize the entire umbilical cord at prenatal ultrasound assessment, despite detailed second and third-trimester scanning, many occurrences of incidental true knot of the umbilical cord remain undetected and are noted only at delivery. Although prenatal sonographic diagnostic accuracy is increasing, false positive sonographic diagnosis of true knot of the umbilical cord cannot be ruled out with certainty, and must continue to be considered clinically. Notwithstanding the inability to diagnose all true knots, currently there is a clear absence of clinical management guidelines by governing bodies regarding patients in whom prenatal sonographic diagnosis of true knot(s) of the umbilical cord is / are suspected. As a result, in many prenatal ultrasound units, suspected sonographic findings suggestive of or consistent with true knot of the umbilical cord are often disregarded, not documented, and patients are not uniformly informed of this potentially life-threatening condition, which carries an associated considerable risk of stillbirth. This commentary will address current perspectives of prenatal sonographic diagnostic and management challenges associated with true knot(s) of the umbilical cord in singleton pregnancies.

Keywords: prenatal ultrasound, true knot of the umbilical cord

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