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Current and emerging testosterone therapies for male hypogonadism

Authors Wynia B, Kaminetsky J

Received 17 October 2014

Accepted for publication 12 November 2014

Published 7 April 2015 Volume 2015:5 Pages 59—69


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Mingzhao Xing

Blake Wynia,1 Jed C Kaminetsky2

1Department of Urology, New York University Langone Medical Center, 2University Urology Associates, Manhattan Medical Research, New York, NY, USA

Abstract: Exogenous testosterone was introduced nearly 80 years ago as a pharmaceutical agent to treat male hypogonadism. Researchers continue to enhance the pharmacokinetic profile of testosterone to improve various benefits, including mood and sexual function, among other potential benefits. The modalities that are currently available include implants, intramuscular injections, oral formulations, transdermal delivery systems (ie, patches, gels, and a solution), transbuccal delivery systems, and most recently, intranasal testosterone. Each of these products differs by the delivery system, half-life, and ability to mimic physiological levels of testosterone. While we recognize the unique characteristics and benefits of existing agents, we must address unmet needs, including how best to mimic physiological levels of testosterone and how to administer it through a more effective, safe, and convenient mechanism. In our overview of current and emerging testosterone therapies, we will examine these topics and address the controversy of prostate cancer and cardiovascular risk.

Keywords: hypogonadism, low testosterone, testosterone replacement therapy, cardiovascular

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