Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Jefferson Scale of Patient’s Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE) for the Portuguese population
Received 10 April 2019
Accepted for publication 14 May 2019
Published 15 July 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 1145—1152
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Ana Catarina Domingues,1 Luiz Miguel Santiago,2–4 Ana Rita Rodrigues,5 Beatriz Pires,2 Denise Velho,6 Pedro L Ferreira4,7
1General Practice and Family Medicine Resident, Family Health Unit Topázio, Health Centers Group of Baixo Mondego, Coimbra, Portugal; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 3Faculty of Medicine, University Clinic of General Practice and Family Medicine, Coimbra, Portugal; 4Centre for Health Studies and Research, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugal; 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugal; 7Faculty of Economy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Objectives: To translate the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE) to the European Portuguese spoken language and to verify its reliability and validity.
Methods: Cultural adaptation and linguistic translation from English to European Portuguese, revision of translations, semantics equivalence, and grammar correction of the Portuguese wording were made. Readability of the Portuguese version was verified and the analysis of internal consistency and correlation with the subscale “physician–patient relationship” of the Portuguese version of European Task Force on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care Scale (EuroPEP) were made. Reliability was tested by intertemporal stability and internal consistency. Validity of criteria and construction was also verified.
Results: The Portuguese translation was adapted to the 8th or 9th grade level, easy to understand. There was the need to change the visual appearance of the scale, answers below sentences. Interclass correlation coefficient for reliability varied between 0.737 and 1.000 and Cronbach’s α between 0.806 and 0.877. Validity was verified by comparing values of socio-demographic variables for JSPPPE index and for EuroPEP with no differences. Correlation values between the total score and its five items varied from 0.806 to 0.934. Criterion validity against EuroPEP had a correlation of 0.831.
Conclusion: This study fulfilled the necessary steps to translate, verify the validity and the reliability of the Portuguese version of the JSPPPE, with minimum layout alteration. All five items were maintained. The authors recommend the use of the JSPPPE in research and clinical practice.
Keywords: empathy, physician-patient relationship, patient centered medicine
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