Cranial nerves XIII and XIV: nerves in the shadows
Bruno Bordoni,1 Emiliano Zanier2
1Don Carlo Gnocchi IRCCS, Department of Cardiology, Milan, 2Xamar Institute, Rosà, Vicenza, Italy
Abstract: It has been known for over a century that these cranial nerves exist, and that they are not typographical errors nor a sensational event reported in the medical literature. A number of scientific articles on anatomy highlight how textbooks on descriptive anatomy do not always consider variables such as differences related to the geographical areas where people live, and these differences do exist. This is an important concept not only for surgeons, but also for all medical professionals who use manual techniques when treating their patients, ie, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and other manual therapists. This paper highlights the latest developments regarding these cranial nerves, offering at the same time some ideas for further reflection when looking at clinical scenarios that appear to bear little relationship to each other. Inclusion of these concepts in everyday anamnesis is encouraged.
Keywords: cranial nerve, facial nerve, trigeminal system, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
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