COVID-19 Pandemic: A Compressive Review on Gender, Herd Immunity, and Physiological Mechanisms
Received 10 August 2020
Accepted for publication 3 December 2020
Published 14 December 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 2963—2974
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Marco Carotenuto
Tariku Sisay,1 Tesfaye Tolessa2
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Mizan Tepi University, Mizan, Ethiopia; 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Tariku Sisay
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Mizan Tepi University, Mizan, Ethiopia
Background: Researchers and scientists experienced the spread and aid recovery of the COVID-19 pandemic with a condition of great uncertainty. With limited understanding of SARS-CoV-2, current attempts at controlling its spread are focused on the suppressing approach (to reduce a sustained endogenous transmission) and the mitigating approach (to reduce the growth rate of the epidemic). On the one hand, while there has been no firm explanation, many governments have considered immunity passport and herd immunity for paths out of restrictive physical distancing measures imposed to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 but were not successful.
Purpose of Review: Herein, we attempted to systematize the lessons and shreds of evidence related to the spectrum of illness, the physiological mechanisms of host susceptibility, herd immunity, immunity passport, gender disparities, and severe challenges and uncertainties posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. We hope that the insights provided in this review will help raise the effectiveness of the treatment policies and preventive measures required to end the pandemic.
Recent Findings: The use of immunity passports is suggested to certify an individual at low risk of acquiring or transmitting SARS-CoV-2. But, an individual might nevertheless carry the virus at similar levels and for a similar duration to those previously uninfected, with an unchanged potential for transmission. Vaccine-induced herd immunity is a complex issue inherent to a vaccine and the population receiving the vaccine. The central epidemiological questions about are as follows: what proportion of the population should be vaccinated to meet elimination (in a local program), eradication (in a global program) or a defined level of control? How is this affected by demographic factors (such as gender)? What is the best age at which to immunize? Besides, although age-dependent mortality risk is estimated to be higher for men and older people, such interpretation across gender, age groups, and countries, however, must be accepted with caution at present.
Summary: COVID-19 has taught us that health is the basis of global wealth and international solidarity is an essential response and a superior approach to isolationism. Hence, we must be clear about what the alternatives are when evaluating the merits of different ways of tackling this pandemic both in the short term as well as in the long term.
Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, gender disparity, herd immunity, immunity passport, vaccine
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