Correlation of visceral adiposity index with chronic kidney disease in the People’s Republic of China: to rediscover the new clinical potential of an old indicator for visceral obesity
Authors Xu X, Zhao Y, Fu P, Zhu S, Liu X, Zhou C, Shao X, Liang Y, Duan C, Holthofer H, Zou
Received 14 September 2015
Accepted for publication 14 January 2016
Published 29 March 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 489—494
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Deyun Wang
Xiaomeng Xu,1 Yan Zhao,2 Zhihong Zhao,1 Shuangshuang Zhu,1 Xinyu Liu,1 Chaomin Zhou,3 Xiaofei Shao,1 Yan Liang,1 Chongyang Duan,4 Harry Holthöfer,5 Hequn Zou1
1Department of Nephrology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, 2Blood Purification Center, The Third Hospital of Zhengzhou, 3Department of Nephrology, Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital, 4Department of Biostatistics, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Centre for BioAnalytical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland
Aim: To validate the association between visceral obesity and pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among individuals aged 40 years and above, and the potential of visceral adiposity index (VAI) to predict CKD.
Methods: This study was based on a cross-sectional epidemiologic study in the People’s Republic of China. A total of 1,581 residents aged over 40 years were included and divided into four groups based on VAI quartile intervals, namely, Groups I, II, III, and IV (eg, Group I included patients with their VAIs in the lowest quartile). Logistic regression analysis was performed.
Results: VAI is positively correlated with the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and the prevalence of CKD (P<0.001), and is inversely related to estimated glomerular filtration rate (P<0.001). Using Group I as control, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to quantify the risk of developing CKD as VAI increased (Group II 1.08 [P>0.05], Group III 1.57 [P<0.05], Group IV 2.31 [P<0.001]). Related factors like age and sex were normalized in the logistic model before calculation. ORs became 1.16 (P>0.05), 1.59 (P<0.05), and 2.14 (P<0.05), respectively, for each group after further normalization considering smoking, drinking, physical activity, education, and the history of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. The same results were not observed after fasting blood glucose and blood pressure levels were included in the normalization. There was no significant difference in the ORs for different groups: 0.94 (P>0.05), 1.11 (P>0.05), and 1.68 (P>0.05), respectively.
Conclusion: VAI is highly correlated with the prevalence of CKD in the population aged 40 years and above. It can be used to predict the pathogenesis of CKD, which is dependent on fasting blood glucose and blood pressure levels.
Keywords: visceral adiposity index, visceral obesity, chronic kidney disease
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