Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults
Authors S. Al-Eisa E, Alghadir A, Gabr S
Received 21 December 2015
Accepted for publication 25 February 2016
Published 4 May 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 513—522
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Einas S Al-Eisa,1 Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr1,2
1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults.
Methods: A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively.
Results: Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained approximately 61.4%–85.8% of reduction in both fatigue scores and muscle fatigue biomarkers with substantial improvement in muscle performance in healthy older adults.
Conclusion: The data showed that considerable levels of 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium intake, and lower obesity positively correlated with the improvement in the muscle relief and performance of physically active participants. These results demonstrate that 25(OH)D concentrations and calcium might prevent muscle fatigue by regulation of the biosynthesis of creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, and hydroxyproline via a proposed antifree radical mechanism reported by higher TAC activity. It was suggested that vitamin D status could be reported as a marker of the improvement of muscle performance, especially in healthy older adults with lower physical activity.
Keywords: exercise, physical fitness, muscle stress, oxidative stress, 25(OH)D concentrations, troponin I, hydroxyproline
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