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Copper-64: a real theranostic agent

Authors Gutfilen B, Souza SAL, Valentini G

Received 12 April 2018

Accepted for publication 9 August 2018

Published 2 October 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 3235—3245


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Tuo Deng

Bianca Gutfilen,1 Sergio AL Souza,1 Gianluca Valentini2

1Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Laboratório de Marcação de Células e Moléculas (LMCM), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Advanced Center Oncology Macerata (ACOM), Montecosaro, Italy

Abstract: Ongoing studies of physiological and pathological processes have led to a corresponding need for new radiopharmaceuticals, especially when studies are limited by the absence of a particular radiolabeled target. Thus, the development of new radioactive tracers is highly relevant and can represent a significant contribution to efforts to elucidate important phenomena in biology. Currently, theranostics represents a new frontier in the fields of medicine and nuclear medicine, with the same compound being used for both diagnosis and treatment. In the human body, copper (Cu) is the third most abundant metal and it plays a crucial role in many biological functions. Correspondingly, in various acquired and inherited pathological conditions, such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease, alterations in Cu levels have been found. Moreover, a wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders are associated with higher or lower levels of Cu, as well as inappropriately bound or distributed levels of Cu in the brain. In human cells, the membrane protein, hCtr1, binds Cu in its Cu(I) oxidation state in an energy-dependent manner. Copper-64 (64Cu) is a cyclotron-produced radionuclide that has exhibited physical properties that are complementary for diagnosis and/or therapeutic purposes. To date, very few reports have described the clinical development of 64Cu as a radiotracer for cancer imaging. In this review, we highlight recent insights in our understanding and use of 64CuCl2 as a theranostic agent for various types of tumors. To the best of our knowledge, no adverse effects or clinically observable pharmacological effects have been described for 64CuCl2 in the literature. Thus, 64Cu represents a revolutionary radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography imaging and opens a new era in the theranostic field.

Keywords: Copper-64, theranostic, cancer, radiopharmaceutical, PET

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